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PROFESSIONAL EVENT SPEAKERS


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Dr. Ramesh Malothu

Assistant Professor & Head School of Biotechnology

Institute of Science and Technology: JNTUK Kakinada, India

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Quorum quenching intervened in vivo bacterial attenuation and immunological enhancement by 2-Hydroxyanisole purified from Solanum torvum root extract.

Dr. Kayeen Vadakkan, St.Mary’s College, India.

The current study was designed to screen a quorum sensing inhibitor from indigenous plants of Kerala, India and to delineate its cytotoxic effect, mode of action and lead compound. Plant that with positive quorum sensing inhibitory action was identified as Solanum torvum by gene sequencing and nucleotide sequence was submitted in NCBI under the accession number KU599936. GC-MS and NIST library employment upon bioactive fraction revealed that the lead compound is 2-Hydroxyanisole and activity was verified in standard compound. Higher CC50 of about 37.90 mg/ml was possessed by the extract. Analysis on mode of action stated that compound is not inhibiting the production of autoinducers, however the interaction between signalling molecule and response gene are disturbed. Higher CC50 of compound emphasized its biocompatibility.  Further the activity of extract was confirmed in Sprague Dawley rat infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa jp7 in lungs. It was evident that compound could influence immunological clearance of pathogen. This stands the first ever report of bacterial quorum quenching by Solanum torvum.

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Induction of callus, shoot regeneration and complete plant establishment from leaf sheath explants of kaempferia galangal l - an important medicinal plant

Dr. Sr. Kochuthressia K.P, St. Joseph’s College, India.

Kaempferia galanga Linn. of Zingiberaceae is a rhizomatous handsome herb is used extensively as a spice throughout tropical Asia and has a long history of medicinal use.  It is a reputed remedy for cough, bronchitis and asthma,  pectoral affections, dyspepsia, headache and malaria.  skin diseases, wounds and spleen disorders and  festering tumours. Rhizomes posses strong antimicrobial ,antioxidant, antitumor ,anti-inflamatory, anti-allergic, insecticidal activity and also used for the  treatment of hypertention. The present  study describes a protocol for in vitro callus induction and plant regeneration from leaf sheath explants of K. galanga using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. For induction of callus, leaf sheath explants were  cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D 2.0 mg/l + BAP 1.0 mg/l. Within 15 days yellow green friable or  semi friable callus was observed. For shoot induction and multiplication yellow green friable or semi friable callus was transferred on to MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP/KN (0.5-3.0 mg/l) alone or  combination of NAA.  Adventious shoot buds were observed from the surface of the callus within 10 -20 days .The highest regeneration frequency (88.5%) with maximum number of shoots (13.16±1.18) was observed on 1.5 mg/l BAP with combination of 1.0 mg/l NAA. Elongation of shoots was observed on MS medium fortified with GA3   1.0 mg/l + BAP 1.5 mg/l, after 20 days. Rooting of in vitro shoots on half strength MS medium containing NA 1.0 mg/l. The healthy in vitro rooted plants acclimatized to green house conditions with river sand, garden soil and farmyard manure in the ratio of 1:2:1. Well developed plantlets transferred to normal climate, after 6 weeks. This protocol proves its utility for rapid propagation of K.galanga to be exploited for pharmaceutical and commercial purposes.

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Biological fixation and solubilization of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium by bacterial consortium SMCNPK18.

Meena K Cheruvathur, St. Mary’s college, India ,

The objectives of this study were to isolate, select, and identify nodulating bacteria from soil and develop a consortium that could perform biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and  solubilization of Phosphorus and Potassium. The bacteria were isolated from soil after which the screening for desired activity was done. Isolates with maximum activity were selected and developed bacterial consortium. Components of this consortium were analysed for its compatibility and combination was formulated. After the formulation this consortium were checked for its activity in situ and ex situ  upon cucumber plants . When compared with untreated plants, the treated plants possessed 70% more activity. Hence it was prove that the bacterial consortium could efficiently enhance soil fertility.

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Dr.Y.Prameela Devi

Professor

Department of Zoology, Kakatiya University,India

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Building an Engine for Drug Discovery with AI and Synthetic Biology

Micheal Winther, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering technologies provide powerful new tools for developing novel products and services and advancing understanding of complex biological systems.  At Engine Biosciences we are building a predictive engine for drug discovery using cellular maps, high-throughput, massively parallel biological experimentation and high-throughput computation for drug target discovery. This is achieved by building an integrated team spanning multiple disciplines including systems and synthetic biology, genome engineering, and data science.

Our platform, which combines artificial intelligence and genetic perturbation, is being used to uncover the gene interactions and biological networks underlying diseases to identify new drug therapies faster and at lower cost. This alliance of technologies is already helping make important analyses and predictions for precision medicine applications.

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Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (ARB) Isolated from Healthy Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) in Chickens

A. Rozila, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia.

Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) is a major public health problem challenging worldwide health care facilities inclusing Malaysia. Several issues were underlie the critical danger that is posed by the rise of ARB related to human and animal health. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the  occurrence of ARB using culturable Chromogenic (CHROM) agar at five chicken farms at  Negeri Sembilan, and Selangor, Malaysia. Three of a healthy gastrointestine tract (GIT) were randomly collected in duplicate from each farms. By using Chromogenic orientation agar plate, nine of bacteria such as Citrobacter, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, E.coli, Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii, were identified their genus and species based on different colour of single colonies according to the standard manufactured. Then, Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to assess the susceptibility of all isolates to ten antibiotics. From the results, a total selected bacteria were isolated from each GIT parts and were tested to Ampicillin, Ceftriaxone, Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid. Thus, this findings will assist to monitor antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) at chicken farms. For effectiveness controlling the ARB, it is necessary to follow the guideline Food Safety Assurance to Veterinary or Public Health Authority. This might be to aware the public on food safety issues of the used of veterinary drugs in conventional poultry produce.  

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Chitosan Scaffold for the Culturing of Monocyte Cells

Anu P. Abhimannu, St. Mary’s College, India.

Cell based assays have been the significant pillar for a large number of drug discovery process and tissue engineering experimentations. Cells naturally live in 3D microenvironments, while common laboratory tests and evaluations are routinely performed in 2D platforms. Hence, it becomes a necessity to study the cell in its native microenvironment to evaluate the efficacy of any drugs.

A three dimensional scaffold was prepared of chitosan solution, lyophilized and cross-linked to achieve desirable porous morphology. Characterization of surface morphology and pores of scaffold was performed by SEM. The swelling ratio of scaffolds in complete media was retrieved. Contact angle measurement was carried out for hydrophilicity determination. The in vitro degradation pattern of chitosan scaffold was evaluated upon treatment with Lysozyme enzyme. The selected scaffolds were further utilized for culturing of monocytes. The viability and morphology of the cells were evaluated.

Cross-linking of chitosan scaffold resulted in reduction of the no: of pores and directly proportionated with the swelling. Cross-linking was observed to be reversely proportional to hydrophilicity and degree of degradation. The 3D cultured monocytes were found to be viable and provides a key tool to assess the potential efficacy of new compounds in drug discovery

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Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and pharmacognostic profile of the endemic Cynometra beddomei in Western Ghats

Viji M O, St.Joseph’s College Irinjalakuda, India.

Cynometra beddomei, a member of family Fabaceae used in traditional medicinal practices can be well exploited for various pharmacognostical studies. Narrow distribution and destruction of natural habitats make the plant less available for detailed phytochemical or pharmacological screening. The leaves of Cynometra beddomei is an important traditional medicine for piles and paralysis treatment. The present study deals with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and pharmacognostical profile of Cynometra beddomei. Qualitative analysis of Cynometra beddomei prain reflects the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, anthraquinones, Tannins, Phenolics, Carbohydrates, Sterols, Saponins, and glycosides. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, FTIR and SEM. In UV spectrum analysis maximum absorption occur at 420nm.The absorption bands corresponding to O-H stretches, C=C stretches, C-N stretches and C-H bending were observed. Other minor bands were also observed. SEM analysis revealed the size of silver nanoparticles to be ranging from 200-250nm. In antibacterial and antifungal screening silver nanoparticle extract of leaves showed significantly higher activity compared to other extracts of plant. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested in different extracts. The methanol leaf extract showed higher ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to chloroform and Ethyl acetate extracts of the plant. In cytotoxic activity, the chloroform leaf extract showed the higher percentage mortality compared to methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the plant. LC50 values ranged from 0.61-10.33μg/ml, silver nanoparticles showed high cytotoxic effect when compared to other extracts. The present study offers a new platform for green nanotechnology with a cost effective, ecofriendly and sustainable approach

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Development of an Edible Vaccine against Pneumococcal Diseases using Transgenic Plant

Shahina Akter, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children and elderly, in the developing countries.  The progressive increase of antibiotic resistance in this bacteria warrants further studies on protective pneumococcal protein antigens as vaccines. In recent years, the pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) has been suggested to be a promising vaccine candidate. On the other hand, plant-based edible vaccines pose an interesting alternative that could overcome some of the limitations of traditional vaccines.  In this study, immune-informatics tools have been used to identify four predicted epitopes within the PspA.  Three different inserts namely alpha, gamma and Ds-red constructs were produced for the integration of the genes.  Antigens of S. pneumoniae fused to either α-zein, γ-zein or Ds-red zein in Lycopersicon esculentum were generated using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocols and several positive transgenic plants were identified for each of the three constructs.  Dried leaves of the transgenic plants were used as edible vaccines.   Experimental mice (88%) immunized with the vaccine produced PspA-specific antibodies and survived live S. pneumoniae challenge, when observed for 60 days, whereas, more than 50% of the control mice died.     All these observations clearly indicate that the immunogenic hot spots within PspA have the potential to serve as attractive candidates for the development of an edible vaccines against S. pneumoniae

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Sequential effects of cadmium on plant growth, biochemical and antioxidant activity in Trigonella

Shahla Faizan, Aligarh Muslim University, India.

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) on growth, biochemical and antioxidant activity of Trigonella treated with five different concentrations 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg Cd/Kg soil. Germination%, root-shoot length, pigment and protein content showed a continuous decrease with increasing Cd concentrations and the maximal decline was observed at the higher concentration while proline and Malondialdehyde content increased with increasing metal concentration. Malondialdehyde content was found to be two-fold higher than control at 100 mg Cd/Kg soil. On other hand the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and catalase rose more than two-fold and the peaked at 100 mg Cd/Kg soil. Thus, these enzymes were more sensitive to Cd than other involved in reactive oxygen species quenching mechanism. A considerable reduction in the growth and yield performance of Trigonella were noticed upon exposure to Cd stress andsuch a reduction governed by Cd was concentration dependent.

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Rakesh Kaushik

GLA University, India

The investigation was carried out to analyse the genetic polymorphism and gene expression of ATP1A1 gene in four different Indian goat breeds by using high resolution melting (HRM) and Real Time-PCR. ATPase is electro-genic ion pump which is maintains the balance of sodium and potassium ions in animal cells. The transport of Na+& K+ is variable at cellular level during extreme hot period. Therefore, susceptible and tolerant animals were selected based on the physiological responses during hot period. Blood samples were collected from individuals, DNA was isolated. The 300 bp fragment of ATP1A1 gene was amplified by PCR and HRM genotyping was performed. The melting curves were analysed, differential temperature-shift plot showed three different genotypes in all the analysed samples. Out of the 135 samples, the distribution percentages were 55.56% (AA/Blue), 33.33% (AC/Red) and 11.11 % (CC/Green). The sequence variation revealed a SNP at 143rd position (A>C). The nucleotide diversity was 0.695±0.403, 0.732±0.424, 0.662±0.433 and 0.687±0.398 in Barbari, Jamunapari, Jakharna and Sirohi, respectively. The respiration rate (RR) was significantly different (P<0.05) between AA and AC (t=1.875, df=38) genotype and heart rate (HR) was significantly different (P<0.05) between AA and CC genotype. The relative expression pattern of ATP1A1 in SNP variants and non-variants animal tissues showed 19.09 and 6.93 fold higher than control (non-variant), respectively. Jamunapari showed higher fold value of ATP1A1 gene in comparison to Barbari, Jakharna and Sirohi. However, the heat stress-susceptible phenotype had significantly higher gene expression than stress-tolerant in all the breeds. The variation may be used as a marker for selection on the basis of physiological parameters and expression of ATP1A1 gene in goats indicating the specificity of expression in each tissue.   

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Biotechnology for a Cleaner Environment

DR. Nagaraja Suryadevara, Mahsa University | Malaysia

Fast Industrial growth in the modern days has become the cause for the increased release of toxic chemicals and nutrients into the water bodies. The degree of a specific toxin released into the water bodies mainly depends upon Industrial exercises in the respective regions. Industries such as textiles, mining, tanneries, metal plating, fertilizer and agro industries, batteries, pesticides, ore refineries, petrochemicals, and paper manufacturing are the major industrial concerns, which contribute greatly to the pollution of soil, sediment, air, and water. A portion of the synthetic substances can never be biodegradable and hence, such substances mainly get accumulated in heaps and affect the human life and nature in various ways. As a result, not only do human beings get their health affected but also aquatic organisms face natural death. In water bodies, the mixing of nitrogen with phosphorus builds the biomass in aquatic systems, thereby impairing the water quality and threatening the natural balance of the ecosystems. Although stringent nitrogen and phosphorus discharge standards from wastewater have been set in many countries, most of the industries often face problems in meeting these requirements. From the regulatory perspective of a particular country, it is necessary to develop new or optimize the existing wastewater treatment technologies for compliance with the latest discharge standards.

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